The theater should meet the use requirements of the performer's drama, music, dance and other performances, and should consider the development situation; at the same time, it should also meet the visual and auditory requirements of the audience. Therefore, a theater with certain functional requirements should be designed according to the visual and auditory requirements of the audience. The author will analyze the specific design methods from the following basic elements to ensure that the theater can obtain better viewing and auditory effects. 1 Stage The stage is the "venue" for the performance and the "three-dimensional picture" for the audience to watch, so it is a very important part of the theater.
The stage of Chinese theater has a long history and unique traditions, but since the beginning of the 21st century, with the input of culture from Europe, the United States, Japan and other countries, the viewing space has also changed, and people's cultural and entertainment concepts and preferences The diversification has led to the diversification of the functions of the theater. The traditional framed stage and box-shaped stage are no longer outstanding. In recent years, many end-type stages have appeared in the country. It is multi-functional, not only for performances but also for meetings, some can also show stereo wide-screen movies, and some add telescopic platforms for fashion shows, etc. From the above, we can see that the development of the stage form is the key to the architectural design of the auditorium. It is related to stage design and drama style; as a "venue" for performance, it is also a "equipment" for performance, and it is a necessary "environment" for drama. The interweaving of these three characteristics is bound to be closely related to the times.
However, the relationship between the audience and the actors facing each other through the mouth of the mirror frame has not changed much. Although there have been end-type and center-type stages, the mirror-frame box-shaped stage is still the audience hall. The mainstream of the viewing space. 1.1 The stage entrance The stage entrance is the center of the space composition in the auditorium, regardless of the inclination of the ceiling, the centripetal of the seats, ears, surface light grooves, and various architectural treatments, all of them strongly highlight its position like a star. . The frame of the stage is also the basis for the design of the auditorium. Its height and width determine the size of the auditorium; the size of the box-shaped stage even affects the shape of the theater; at the same time, it is also the sound field in the stage and the sound field of the auditorium. The coupling point, like the throat, plays a decisive role in the sound quality of the auditorium.
In general, the height, width and lip dimensions of the stage are as follows. 1.2 Stage (1) Width - twice the width of the stage mouth (28-32 m). Side stages should be at the front of the stage and to one or both sides of the performance area.
(2) Depth - generally 12-15 m, medium-sized 16-18 m (the most adaptable), large-sized 19-21 m, Beijing Capital Theater 19.5 m. The canopy and the aisle of the running field should be separated by a partition wall. The door of the running field should not be less than 1.5m, and the height of the door should not be lower than 2.4m (mainly so that the door width and height of the partition wall do not hinder actors from getting on and off the field). The side of the wall inside the stage should be treated with sound absorption to prevent the reverberation time in the stage space from being too long or other sound defects from affecting the performance.
The end stage can be 9m. (3) Net height - should be 2.5 times the stage height, plus 1-2 m of installation height f to the lower edge of the trellis (commonly known as the grape trellis). Generally, the stage is located on the second floor of the bridge.
The bridge on the first floor is about the height of the stage entrance plus 0.5m from the platform, and the distance from the side curtain is 1m. The bridge width is 1.8-2.5 m. A light bridge should be set up on the side near the platform entrance instead of a flyover; and a flyover should not be set up within 1.5 m from the platform entrance to facilitate the operation of large curtains, fireproof curtains, booms, etc.
The second floor bridge is at 10.5-11.5 m, which is the equipment layer of the boom, with a load of not less than 200 kg/m2. 1.3 Stage equipment Generally, the number of suspenders on the stage is 3-5 per m, and they are arranged more densely in the performance area. The load of each suspender is about 400 kg, and the light pole is about 600 kg. The curtain of the stage is a large curtain (with electric guide rail and pulley interlocking mechanism); others include the front curtain, side curtain, front upper curtain, second curtain, third curtain, light curtain, gauze curtain, sky curtain, etc., which are all lifted by electric booms .
Large-scale stages generally have false stage openings, and some also have turntables, car platforms, lifting platforms, etc., and telescopic stages are used for special effects such as fashion shows. There are lighting cages in the large stage, and generally there are lighting stands. 2 Vision 2.1 Sight distance According to the characteristics of visual resolution, within a distance of 20-25 m, people can clearly see the expressions of the actors. The highest effectiveness is 18-20 m; but practice shows that the actor's subtle movements and expressions can be clearly seen at a viewing distance of 29-30 m, which is the effect of association.
Therefore, the length of the auditorium is generally about 30m. 2.2 The greater the stereoscopic viewing distance, the slower people are to the change of the actor's walking, that is, the change of the distance. For example, the audience at 30m away from the stage can only feel the change of the actor's position on the stage when the change is greater than 0.65m. If the actor takes a small step in the direction of the audience (less than 0.65 m), he will not feel the change, so the three-dimensional effect will be greatly affected. 2.3 The viewing angle is the most comfortable viewing condition without turning the eyes. The horizontal viewing angle is 30°, and the depression angle is 15°; when the eyes are turned, the horizontal viewing angle is 60°, and the depression angle is 30°. is inappropriate.
Therefore, the angle formed by any audience in the first row of the auditorium and the width of the stage opening, that is, the horizontal angle should generally be controlled within the range of 30-60°. 2.4 The balcony is set up in most of the auditoriums with mirror frames. Due to the limitation of the viewing angle, in order to make the audience on the balcony see more of the sky, the balcony should not be too high, and the height of the opening under the balcony It can't be too small, so it can only reduce the rise of the pool seat. It can be said that a small amount of high-quality seats in the front of the balcony is exchanged for the decline in the quality of the pool seat auditorium, which accounts for more than half of the total. The vertical viewing angle of the auditorium is generally not optimal, and most audiences watch from an elevation angle, with poor stereoscopic effect and severe occlusion. 2.5 Rising slope In order to ensure that all audiences in the auditorium watch the stage performance without being blocked by the audience in the front row, the floor of the auditorium is usually raised to a certain slope row by row from front to back.
In general, the stage surface located at the point of the curtain line, or 300-500 mm above the stage surface is set as the viewpoint, the height of each row of human eyes from the ground is generally 1100 mm, and the line of sight elevation constant is The distance between the human eye and the top of the head is 12 cm, and the slope of the ground rise is calculated. 3. Stage lighting Stage lighting is a lighting field formed by lamps and lanterns in many positions on the stage, providing special artistic effects, showing the three-dimensional sense of the body, and generating the mood and atmosphere of drama. These functions are obtained through various changes in light quality, light quantity, light color and light direction.
The position of lamps and lanterns can be divided into two categories: front stage and inside stage. The lighting facilities and positions in front of the stage affect the audience hall space. The included angle is 45-50°, not more than 55°. The clear height of the opening of the surface light trough should be greater than 0.7 m. If the upper and lower rows of lights are to be installed, it should be 1.2 m, and the depth should be 0.8-1.2 m; The distance is 0.1 m. The height in the surface light groove should be greater than 1.8 m.
The slap needs to be able to irradiate the main stage at a depth, the deeper the better, it is hoped that it can irradiate 2/3 of the performance area of the stage, and the irradiation angle is about 45°. The slap groove should be more than 3m away from the platform and not less than 6m away from the platform mouth. There are at least 4 rows of slap lamps, and each row has 3 lamps.
The opening width is 1.7m, and the distance between the lamp holders is 0.7m. Generally, 1-2 chasing lights are placed on the upper part of the back end of the hall. The lighting distribution of each part of the stage lighting can generally be set according to Table 2.