Basics of Lighting Design


1. The artistic function of light (1) The origin of light art Sunshine, moonlight, starlight and fire light accompany the life of primitive people. The rising sun alternates with the setting sun, and the cycle of day and night. Primitive people grow and multiply under the bath of light. The invention and use of fire has brought human beings into a new stage of civilization. Fire is not only used for lighting, heating, and grilling food. Joyful and joyful faces, a string of dancing torches form a fire snake dragon, which is the prototype of primitive light art formed by light in the early days of human beings. With the invention and creation of artificial light sources such as fire, candles, oil lamps, gas lamps, and electric lamps, human beings have crossed one civilization stage after another and entered the era of high-tech lighting lighting. Due to the rapid development of artificial lighting technology and the popularity of artificial light sources, people's nightlife Becoming more and more colorful, lighting art, as a new form of visual art, decorates people's living space more beautifully.

In modern environmental art design, stage art design, interior decoration, etc., lighting art has been widely used. (2) The artistic charm of light The role of light is extremely important to the display of human visual function, because without light, there will be no sense of light and shade and color, and you will not be able to see everything. Illumination is not only a physiological need for the shape, space, and color of human visual objects, but also an indispensable material condition for beautifying the environment.

Illumination can form space and change space; it can beautify space and destroy space. Different lighting not only illuminates various spaces, but also creates different moods and atmospheres of space. In the same space, if you use different lighting methods, different positions, angles, different lamp shapes, different light intensities and colors, you can get a variety of visual space effects: for example, sometimes it is bright and spacious, sometimes dark and depressing; Warm and comfortable, sometimes restless; sometimes festive, sometimes eerie; sometimes warm and enthusiastic, sometimes cold; sometimes romantic, sometimes mysterious, etc. The charm of light can be described as unpredictable.

Under the light, people and objects will produce changes in light and dark interfaces and shadow levels, and give them a three-dimensional effect visually. If you change the spectral composition, luminous flux, light intensity, projection position and direction of the source, various changes in hue, light and shade, shade, virtual reality, and outline interface will occur. means. Just like a portrait photography, if the top light is used for direct lighting, then the human face will give people a cold, serious, and gloomy feeling; if the oblique upper half side light is used for lighting, then the human face will give people an extroverted, shrewd and capable look. Feeling; if multi-light source astigmatism lighting is used, then it will give people a feeling of easy-going personality and happy mood; if it is oriented to direct lighting, it will give people a feeling of horror, ferocity and anger.

Light sculpture is a new form of modern plastic arts. Some artists use glass, ice, transparent plastic and other light-transmitting materials to make various shapes and lamps. The full play of the characteristics forms a brilliant three-dimensional art, and also uses small colored light bulbs, lamp beads, neon lights, optical fibers and other lighting materials to directly form colorful light pattern pictures. The comprehensive art created by the cooperation of lighting and music is very popular in modern performing arts and environmental art. For example, when modern rock stars perform, they use the light and shade, color, and intensity of lighting to make the color of the entire stage change rapidly, thereby intoxicating the fans. In a fast-paced dreamlike surreal world. As another example, the combination of lighting and music is also used to render the environmental artistic atmosphere of musical fountains, open-air squares, dance halls, ice rinks, and commercial buildings. Designers use computers to control lighting and music programs to synchronize the rhythm of music with lighting. The strength and swaying of the light, so as to obtain the comprehensive artistic effect of sound, light and color.

 2. Principles of light composition (1) Three laws of color light mixing Human eyes not only produce a color vision for monochromatic light, but also produce the same color vision for mixed light. For example, the monochromatic light of 520 nm stimulates the human eye to produce green perception, and the monochromatic light of 510 nm and 530 nm is mixed to stimulate the human eye to produce green perception; another example is the monochromatic light of 580 nm stimulates the human eye to produce green perception. Yellow perception, mixing 700nm red light and 510nm green light to stimulate the human eye can also produce yellow perception, and the human eye cannot perceive any difference between the two. Color light mixing in the spectrum is a kind of additive color mixing, using 3 primary colors: red (R), green (G), blue (B), mixed in a certain proportion to get white light or any light on the spectrum.

Glassman summarized the phenomenon of color mixing into three laws: the law of supplementary light, the law of intermediate color, and the law of substitution. Complementary color law - each color light has another color light that mixes with it to produce white color light. These two color lights are called complementary color light. For example, blue light and yellow light, green light and purple light, red light and blue light can be mixed to produce white light.

The law of the middle - the mixture of two non-complementary color lights cannot produce white light, and the result of the mixture is an intermediate color light between the two. For example, red light and green light, depending on the mixing ratio, can be mixed with orange, yellow, yellow-orange and other colors in between. Law of Substitution - Colors that appear to be the same can be composed of different spectra.

As long as they feel similar colors, they can be substituted for each other. For example, color light A=color light B, color light C=color light D, then A+C=B+D; and if A+B=C, and X+Y=B, then A+(X+Y)=C, such as: A (yellow light) = B (red light + green light), C (blue light) = D (blue light + green light), A (yellow light) + C (blue light) = B (red + green light) + D (blue light + green light), the result is A (yellow light) + C (cyan light) = light green light, B (red light + green light) + D (blue light + green light) = red light + green light + Blue light + green light = white light + green light = pale green light. This is the law of substitution.

It is a very important law in color optics, and modern colorimetry is based on this theory. The law of color light mixing belongs to additive color mixing, which is opposite to the mixing of dyes and pigments. The latter is subtractive color mixing, and its mixing law is completely opposite. (2) Mixing of three primary colors The additive color mixing theory in the color physics theory proves that white light is produced when the three primary colors of red, green and blue are mixed in equal amounts; yellow light is produced by equal mixing of red light and green light; red light and blue light, etc. Mixing equal amounts of green light and blue light produces magenta; equal amounts of green light and blue light produce cyan light.

If the letters R, G, B, Y, M, C, and W are used to represent red, green, blue, yellow, magenta, cyan, and white, the mixed result can be obtained by the following formula: Green light (2G) + red light (2R)→Yellow light (Y) Red light (2R)+Blue light (2B)→Magenta light (M) Blue light (2B)+Green light (2G)→Cyan light (C) Red light (2R)+Green light (2G) + blue light (2B) → white light (W) If the three primary colors are mixed in a ratio of two to one, the result is as follows: red light (2R) + green light (1G) → orange red light (1R) + green light ( 2G)→yellow green red light (2R)+blue light (1B)→eosin red light (1R)+blue light (2B)→purple red green light (2G)+blue light (1B)→emerald green light (1G)+blue light (2B) →Sky blue Because yellow, magenta, and cyan are the secondary colors of red, green, and blue light, it can also be expressed as: 2R+Y=2R+(2R+2G)=4R+2G→2R+G (orange) 2G+Y =2G+(2R+2G)=4G+2R→2G+R (yellow green) 2R+M=2R+(2B+2R)=4R+2B→2R+B (eosin) 2B+M=2B+(2B+2R )=4B+2R→2B+R (purple) 2G+C=2G+(2B+2G)=4G+2B→2G+B (emerald green) 2B+C=2B+(2B+2G)=4B+2G→2B+ G (sky blue) As shown in Figure 45, the relationship between two colors that pass through the center point of an equilateral triangle is complementary, and the result of the mixture is as follows: blue light (2B) + yellow light (2G + 2R) = 2B + 2G + 2R → White light sky blue (2B+G) + orange light (R+G) = 2B + 2G + 2R → white light blue light (2B + 2G) + red light (2R) = 2B + 2G + 2R → white light emerald green (2G + B )+eosin (2R+B)=2B+2G+2R→white light green light (2G)+magenta (2B+2R)=2B+2G+2R→white light yellow-green (2G+R)+purple red (2B+ R)=2B+2G+2R→White Light 3. Design principles 1. Functional principles The lighting design must meet the functional requirements. Different lighting methods and lamps should be selected according to different spaces, different occasions and different objects, and Ensure proper illumination and brightness. For example: the lighting design of the conference hall should adopt vertical lighting, which requires uniform brightness distribution and avoid glare. The image of the product is 3 to 5 times brighter than general lighting. In order to enhance the three-dimensionality, texture and advertising effect of the product, directional lighting fixtures and color light are often used to improve the artistic appeal of the product. 2. The principle of aesthetics Lighting is an important means to decorate and beautify the environment and create an artistic atmosphere.

In order to decorate the interior space, increase the spatial level, and render the atmosphere of the environment, it is very important to use decorative lighting and decorative lamps. In the environmental design of modern home buildings, film and television buildings, commercial buildings and entertainment buildings, lighting has become a part of the whole. Lamps not only play a role in ensuring lighting, but also pay attention to their shapes, materials, colors, proportions, and scales. Lamps have become indispensable decorations for indoor spaces.

Lighting designers give full play to the brilliance and color of lights through rhythmic control of light and shade, looming, circumflex, and strength, and use various means such as transmission, reflection, and refraction to create a warm, soft, quiet, elegant, and pleasant environment. Romance, splendor, magnificence, joy and festivities, fast-paced, mysterious, confusing and other artistic atmospheres add rich and colorful flavors to people's living environment. 3. The principle of economy. It is not necessarily better to have more lighting. The key to winning with the strong is scientific and reasonable. The lighting design is to meet the needs of people's visual physiology and aesthetic psychology, to maximize the practical value and appreciation value of the interior space, and to achieve the unity of use function and aesthetic function.

Flashy lighting not only can't make the icing on the cake, but it adds to the liking. At the same time, it will cause power consumption, energy waste and economic loss, and even cause light pollution and damage the health of the body. The brightness standard of lighting is different due to different purposes and resolution requirements, and the selected standards are also different. The lighting brightness standards of various public buildings selected in the Japanese Industrial Standards are introduced as follows, for reference only.

(See the attached table later) \m!gqK熊)_ 4. Safety principles Lighting design requires absolute safety and reliability. Since the lighting comes from the power source, strict safety measures such as electric shock prevention and circuit breakage prevention must be taken to avoid accidents. (1) The expression of light 1. Surface light performance Surface light refers to the luminous surface made of indoor ceiling, wall and ground.

The ceiling is characterized by uniform illumination, sufficient light, and various forms of expression. If you use fluorescent lamps to suspend the ceiling, the light density must be consistent to ensure that each space has sufficient light; if you use large-area downlights to suspend the ceiling, there are regular bull’s-eye lamps on the ceiling, just like the night sky dotted with stars; and if combined with the ceiling beam structure, Designed as light wells, _ light is emitted from the wells, producing a unique spatial effect. Wall lights are generally used for photo exhibitions.

The wall is made into a hollow double-layer sandwich wall, and the wall facing the display is made into a luminous wall, in which several glass frames are embedded, and a light projection device is installed behind the frame to form a luminous exhibition wall. Large light box advertisements also belong to this type of lighting. The ground light is to make the ground into a luminous floor, which is usually set up for the dance floor. The light, shadow and color of the colorful luminous floor change synchronously with the rhythm of the electronic sound, which greatly enhances the artistic atmosphere of the stage performance.

2. Lighting performance The so-called light striping is to arrange the light source into a strip of light. There are various forms of expression, such as squares, grids, bars, bars, rings (rings, ellipses), triangles and other polygons. Such as peripheral plane light belt ceiling, peripheral concave light belt ceiling, inner frame light belt ceiling, inner frame concave light belt ceiling, peripheral light belt floor, inner frame light belt floor, ring light belt floor, upper Lighting grooves, ceiling concave light grooves, foot concave light grooves, etc.

The strip-shaped light strips have a certain degree of guidance, and are often used as directional lighting in the environmental design of public places with a large number of people. Other geometric light strips are generally used for decoration. 3. Point light performance Point light refers to a light source with a small and concentrated light projection range. Due to its strong illuminance, it is mostly used for direct lighting or accent lighting in restaurants, bedrooms, study rooms, showcases, stages and other places.

There are various methods of point light expression, such as top light, bottom light, front light, backlight, side light and so on. Top Lighting - Lighting from the top down, similar to direct sunlight at noon in summer. Lighting objects have small projections and strong contrast between light and dark, so it is not suitable for modeling light.

Bottom light - bottom-up lighting, suitable for auxiliary light distribution. Front light - the lighting from the front, the projection is flat, the color of the illuminated object is fully displayed, but the three-dimensional effect is poor. Backlighting--lighting from the rear, the outline of the illuminated object is clear, and it has an artistic silhouette effect. It is a commonly used light distribution method in photography art and stage sky.

Side light--the light is irradiated from the left and right, the upper left, the upper right, the lower left, and the lower right. The projection of the illuminated object is clear, the three-dimensional effect is strong, and the layers are rich. It is the most acceptable lighting method for people. 4. Static light and flowing light Static light - the lamp is fixed, the light is static and unchanged, and the light that does not flash is a static light. Most of the indoor lighting adopts static lighting. This lighting method can make full use of light energy and create a stable, soft and harmonious light environment atmosphere. It is suitable for schools, factories, office buildings, shopping malls, exhibitions and other places.

Flowing lighting is a flowing lighting method, which has rich artistic expression and is a commonly used means in stage lighting and urban neon advertising design. For example, "following lights" are used on the stage to constantly chase moving actors, and the neon lights used as advertising lighting are constantly flowing and flickering, changing colors frequently, which not only highlights the artistic image, but also renders the artistic atmosphere of the environment. 5. Laser A laser is a beam of light emitted by a laser.

The medium that produces the laser beam includes crystal, glass, gas (such as argon, krypton, helium-neon mixed gas, etc.) and dye solution. Certain gas lasers have been used as light sources for light art, of which the helium-neon laser is the most commonly used, which produces red monochromatic light; the argon-ion laser produces blue-green and green light, and these two wavelengths of light can be diffracted The grating separates to form two beams of monochromatic light of different colors. Different dye lasers can produce any kind of laser with a wavelength range of 400-750mm as required.

However, dye lasers are devices that work in pulse mode, and it must rely on its laser or electronic flash as a driving source. _ (3) Types of lamps and artistic effects With the rapid development of new technologies and materials, lamps and lanterns have a wide variety of designs and colors, rich shapes, and infinite changes in light, color, shape and quality. Lamps not only provide lighting conditions for people's lives , and it is an important finishing touch in interior environment design. Lamps can be divided into the following types according to the installation method.

ok Suspension category - commonly known as chandeliers. There are general chandeliers, which are used in general indoor spaces; lanterns, which are used in luxurious and tall hall spaces; palace lamps, which are generally used in halls with traditional classical style; telescopic chandeliers, which use telescopic snakeskin tubes or telescopic chains for hanging The height of the lamp can be adjusted within a certain range according to the needs. Ceiling category - lamps that are close to the ceiling.

There are protruding ceiling lamps, which have a larger application area and can be used alone or in combination. The former is suitable for smaller spaces, and the latter is suitable for larger spaces; recessed ceiling lamps, lamps embedded in the ceiling Inside, combined use gives people the feeling of starry sky. Wall lamps - There are two types of wall lamps: wall-attached and cantilevered, which are installed on walls and columns. The shape of the wall lamp is required to be rich in decoration, and it is suitable for various spaces.

Floor lamp - also known as floor lamp, is a local lighting fixture for living room, living room, hotel guest room, reception room and other spaces. It is one of the interior furnishings and has the function of decorating space. Desk lamps - local lighting lamps located on desks, tea tables, and low cabinets are also one of the main furnishings full of appeal in modern families. In modern hotels, desk lamps have become a distinctive means of decorative lighting. Special lighting fixtures--a variety of specially manufactured lighting fixtures, such as follow spot lights, return lights, sky flood lights, rotating lights, beam lights, meteor lights, etc. for stage performances.

(4) Analysis of Lighting Design Examples The comprehensive introduction is as follows, for reference only. See Tables 29 and 30.  4. Stage lighting design Human ancestors lived in caves during the period of drinking blood. They relied on the sun during the day and the moon and fire at night to sing and dance to celebrate victory. This is the most primitive stage lighting for humans.

With the development of human civilization, stage lighting has developed from firelight, candlelight, oil lamp, gas lamp to advanced electric light source, lighting equipment is constantly updated, lighting technology is becoming more and more scientific, and stage lighting art is rich and colorful. The master of today's stage lighting is lighting design. Stage lighting design must master the principle of additive mixing of light. Lighting designers skillfully use red, green, blue, white and other color lights to create various ideal color lights by changing the ratio of light intensity and mixed light volume.

In addition to ordinary lighting fixtures for stage lighting, specially designed special lights include follow spot lights, back lights, sky floodlights, rotating lights, beam lights, meteor lights, etc., which are suitable for stage performances. Each light can create Different artistic atmosphere. Laser is a new light source for modern stage lighting. The so-called laser is a beam emitted by a laser. A laser is a parallel light composed of several wavelengths of light. It usually has a much brighter power than the beam emitted by an ordinary light source. Therefore, lasers have been widely used in stage lighting art. application.

Such as modern large-scale dance halls or intensely flowing laser beams complement each other, flickering, shocking rock music and modern dance postures, so that the intoxicated singers, dancers and song and dance fans are immersed in a sea of ​​music and a fanatical artistic atmosphere. middle. The coordination of light, color and music has achieved an unprecedented comprehensive artistic effect of sound, light and color. 5. Art design of neon lamps Neon lamps are lamps that use gas discharge to emit light.

Bend the slender glass tube into various shapes as required, then remove the air in the tube and fill it with a small amount of inert gas such as argon or neon. After electrification, it can emit colored light. The color of the light varies with the inflated gas. If it is filled with neon gas, it will emit red-orange light; if it is filled with a mixture of argon and mercury, it will emit cyan light; if it is filled with a mixture of neon and mercury, it will emit green light. . In order to obtain more colors, different fluorescent substances can also be coated on the glass tube wall.

Neon art has been widely used in light box advertising, street signs, window design, display design and other decorative art fields. Under the decoration of neon lights and other electro-optical decorations in the modern city at night, the tall buildings look more beautiful and attractive like girls in evening dresses; The quiet and lonely streets on the outside have become a city that never sleeps with a sense of the times. Neon lights and electro-optic decorations can be described as the art of drawing with light, which depicts the modern city so beautifully and colorfully.

The principle of color design for neon light decoration is additive color mixing. Due to the direct light of the electric light source color on the human eye and the continuous change of the light intermittently on and off, it is easy to produce visual afterimages and cause dazzling and fatigue. Therefore, neon lights Color design must pay attention to two aspects: first, in order to reduce eye fatigue, various color lights must establish a certain spectral order, so that strong light stimulation can increase the softness with the help of order; second, the time interval between neon lights turning on and off must be Choose the best time ratio and use the rhythm of time to increase the comfortable rhythm.

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