Theater Stage Lighting Configuration The stage in the theater has a variety of stages, such as a common mirror frame stage, an extended stage, an island stage, and a stage called a black box. Because the stage forms are different, the configuration requirements of the lamps are also different. not exactly. For the sake of convenience, I only talk about the ordinary framed stage here. This kind of stage is more common in the past or in the rebuilt and newly built theaters. Therefore, it is extremely necessary and necessary to talk about the lighting configuration of this stage. The stage (referring to the proscenium stage, the same below) has different requirements for lamps and lanterns due to the different repertoires performed.
Therefore, we must be clear about what kind of repertoire to perform on this stage before using the lamps, so that the configuration of the lamps will have a clearer goal and intention. If some stage is positioned to perform traditional opera and ballet, the configuration of lamps must be configured according to the requirements of opera and ballet. For special programs such as large-scale singing and dancing, miscellaneous events, etc., in addition to the basic requirements for lighting configuration, special lighting positions and lighting configurations should be added according to specific program requirements, so it is difficult to describe clearly here.
So here I just talk about the configuration of the basic lamps and lanterns of the theater stage. According to this configuration, Kejiang can meet the general requirements of local dramas such as opera, dance drama, ballet, modern drama, and Peking opera. Before configuring lamps, you should first understand the types of lamps and their main functions and uses. Here I briefly introduce the performance of some lamps for the choice of lamp configuration.
1. Spotlight - the spotlight used on the stage refers to the use of a plano-convex condenser in front of the lamp. This kind of lamp can adjust the size of the light spot. The music beam coming out is relatively concentrated, and the light diffused next to it is relatively small. The power ranges from 0.5W to 5KW. There are many kinds, the focal length can be divided into long, medium and short, and the distance of sight can be selected according to the needs. 2. Ribbed light - or soft light, but in the TV world this kind of light is called a spotlight. In terms of the stage, in order to distinguish the above-mentioned plano-convex spotlight from being diffuse and soft, it has a large diffusion area when used. Sometimes, in order to control the diffused light, a title page is added in front of the mirror to cover it all over. Le lights have obvious light spots, and the shooting distance is relatively short. The power is 1KW, 2KW and so on.
3. Back light - there is no lens in front of this kind of light, and the light is completely emitted from the larger reflector at the back. With the same 2KW bulb, its brightness is brighter than that of the spotlight, so it is used when the strong light source and brightness are to be displayed on the stage. Its effect is better than other lamps, and its characteristic is that the beam is strong, but you should pay attention to its focus point when adjusting the light. It is not suitable to adjust the focus point on the color paper or the curtain, which will easily cause burning. In addition, black spots often appear in the center when adjusting the light. , in order to avoid black spots, a ring-shaped baffle is added in the center of the front end of the lamp, and the emitted light spot is large and difficult to close. Now there is a new kind of coating on the reflective bowl to make the outside light transmit backwards to reduce the temperature in front of the lamp. It works well. The name is cold light super spotlight. In fact, the structure of the lamp is the same as that of the backlight.
4. Imaging lights - or shaping lights, ellipsoidal spotlights. There are many kinds of beam angles that can be selected and applied according to the needs. The main feature is that it can cut the spot into square, rhombus, triangle and other shapes like a slideshow, or project various patterns and patterns as required. The power also has 1KW, 2KW, etc. Configuration is optional. 5. Simple light—also known as PAR light, or beam light, its structure is to install a mirror bulb in a cylinder or use a reflective bowl to hold bromine tungsten bulbs. Its main feature is to emit a relatively fixed beam with various beam angles. The size cannot be adjusted.
6. Sky row lights - high-power astigmatism lights, used to illuminate the sky from top to bottom, requiring light and balance, and a large irradiation area. 7. Ground row lights - high-power astigmatism lights, used to be placed on the stage, the lower part of the sky is illuminated upwards, connected with the light from the sky row lights, and evenly up and down. 8. Astigmatism strip light - long strip, divided into multiple grids, generally can be divided into three or four colors, each grid uses an incandescent bulb with a power of about 200W, and requires various colors to be self-connected and uniform, and is used for large-area irradiation curtains or paintings , can also be used as a large-area balanced light spreading, and various color lights can also be used at the same time to call out different colored beams.
9. General astigmatism lights - such as iodine tungsten lamps and ordinary floodlights, are mainly used to evenly illuminate a certain area, or some scenery. The lamps introduced above are the basic lamps used on general stages, but other types of lamps should be equipped due to the different forms of performances. For example, in addition to the basic lamps, a large number of downlights, computer lamps, hose lamps, panel lamps, and various effect lamps are used in the singing and dancing party, and even fog machines, dry ice machines, strobe lights, lasers, and projection slides are also required. For backlighting, to reduce light source spots, special seamless plastic curtains, etc., I will not give examples here.
The configuration of stage lamps and lanterns is divided into two parts: the outside of the stage and the inside of the stage with the mouth as the boundary. 1. The outside of the stage is generally divided into surface light, slap, box (balcony), and long-distance chasing light room. 1. According to the scale of the theater stage, there are one surface light, two surface lights, or even three surface lights. The configuration of the surface light should be based on the difference in the distance, and the spotlights and imaging lights with different set distances should be configured, and the power should be above 2KW.
The first surface light is closer to the platform entrance, and some 2KW rib lights and return lights can also be added. The left, middle and right positions of the first surface light and the second surface light should be equipped with follow-spot lamps with suitable focal length and power. The brightness and color change can be individually controlled by the follow-up personnel. 2. The slaps are arranged symmetrically on the left and right sides of the proscenium. According to the scale of the theater stage, one or two slaps can be set on each side, and the lamps are equipped with spotlights as the main ones. A small amount of imaging lights and ribbed lights can be configured. Very close, when using rib lights, the diffuse light often illuminates the nearby walls very brightly, affecting the atmosphere of some scenes, so it is better to use less.
Each left and right slap should be equipped with a set of follow-spot lights for the follow-up personnel to control them arbitrarily. 3. The footlights are generally located outside the entrance of the stage by the side of the orchestra pool. The footlights are equipped with a built-in four-color scattered light strip light, which is controlled by color separation, and its length is slightly smaller than the width of the stage entrance. 4. Long-distance chasing rooms are generally located on the left and right sides of the auditorium, and gas discharge lamps such as xenon lamps are installed inside. All controls are operated by chasing personnel. If special chasing rooms cannot be set up, they are often located on the left and right sides of the balcony There are spotlights in the rear area.
5. For box (balcony) light, several spotlights can be set at the left, middle, and right of the box (balcony) according to the situation of the theater. 2. Inside the proscenium, there are generally false proscenium side panels (left and right column light), false proscenium top panel (a suspension bridge), two roofs, three roofs, four roofs, five roofs, sky row, ground row, left and right flow, left and right sides Light (left and right cages), one cage, two cages, three cages, four cages, five cages, etc., depending on the size of the stage, some facilities are less. Depth, the distribution of scenic spots to determine how many suitable. The left and right side lights (hanging cages) should also be set up or not according to the size of the stage and even the investment.
Some stages have requirements for rear stage or anti-projection light behind the sky curtain, which should also be considered according to the stage scale, investment, and the main repertoire. If there is such a possibility, the configuration of lamps should of course be planned. For supporting use. 1. The side panels of the false platform (left and right column lights) are equipped with spotlights, rib lights, follow spot lights, and a small amount of imaging lights, which are generally left-right symmetrical except for special ones. 2. The upper part of the false platform (a suspension bridge) is equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, rib lights, imaging lights, and follow spot lights.
3. The second top light is equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, ribbed lights, and downlights. 4. The three top lights are equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, rib lights, back lights, and down lights. 5. The four top lights are equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, rib lights, back lights, and down lights.
6. The five top lights are equipped with astigmatism strip lights, spotlights, rib lights, return lights, and down lights. 7. The sky row is equipped with sky row lights. 8. The ground row is equipped with ground row lights.
9. Mobile configuration Mobile light stands, spotlights, ribbed lights, flat lights, etc. 10. The left and right side lights (lighting cage) are equipped with spotlights, rib lights, imaging lights, and return lights. Some theater stage top lights are not equipped with astigmatism strip lights, but instead use rows of iodine tungsten astigmatism lights.
The way of configuring lamps can be changed according to needs, but the performance of various lamps should be considered. Let it give full play to its function for my use, to be perfect. Main points of stage lighting composition 1. Performance space composition characteristics Architecture, sculpture, and painting are the art of keeping time and space relatively eternal in a plane or three-dimensional.
As a comprehensive art of time and space, performance art needs a space to maintain the relationship between watching and performing - theater or performance venue. Stage artists jointly form a visual and auditory creative space with multi-dimensional factors such as sound, light, color, and shape in performances that transcend time and space, and continue to develop with time, as well as the transformation of plots and scenes. Whether it is the turning point of the dramatic plot or the performance of opera singing and dancing, at the same time, the performance lighting changes the light and shade effect, the change of the shape space or the function of the lighting equipment itself in the audience's vision or unconsciously. A visual performance effect.
By shaping images, rendering colors, changing rhythms, etc., we can take part in the performance and form a special stage performance space atmosphere with visual vocabulary, thereby affecting the emotional changes of the audience, and forming a specific space where the scene, actors, and audience interact with each other and match the content of the stage performance. . 1. Performance space 1) According to the characteristics of the performance scene and performance environments such as theater studios, the stage can use objective conditions for lighting design. 2) Conditions of performance spaces such as theaters and studios *Space environment: Investigate and understand theaters, measure and draw or obtain floor plans and section drawings of performance environment spaces, data on the height, width, and stage depth of the theater proscenium, and scale units.
*Equipment status: the number and length of suspenders, arrangement spacing, sequence number, plane position, etc. * Electric load: rated load capacity of main line, rated load capacity of branch line circuit, etc. 2. Studying scripts and creative conception Scripts are the basis for lighting equipment and creative conception, in which the expression space related to creation can be excavated and refined.
1) Find out the representative character characteristics, plot changes, conflicts, and the environment required for the imagination. 2) Conceive and position the description of era, time, season, scene environment, light source direction and color, etc. 3) Determine and adapt to performance methods and means of performance.
Think about what kind of lighting can be used to create a stage visual effect that matches the plot. 4) Scenes and stage installations prompted by the script. 3. The performance of time and space conversion 1) Weather: sunrise and sunset, dusk to night, night to dawn, seasonal changes, moon night starry sky, changes in locations and regions, etc.
2) Regional space, psychological space, scene space, virtual space, transformation of local and overall space, etc. 4. From the planar to the three-dimensional spatial modeling concept, the production, processing and combination of the visual effects on the surface of each shape, as well as the application of the plane composition of the foreground space, middle ground space, and background space. The internal organization and arrangement of the upper, middle and lower spaces and the prediction of the realization method.
For example: setting of backlight position: horizontal direction, vertical angle, position height, number of lamps, etc. 5. Partial and overall picture composition control lighting and color and lighting area. The composition of the stage visual picture is expressed by the size, shape and quantity of the area.
6. Selection of expression form Determine the appropriate expression form according to the overall style of creation. Past, present, future, association, hallucination, dream, memory, longing, feeling, impression, abstraction and realism, etc. 7. Expressing infinite space in a limited space There are huge changes in spatial effects in thousands of performances.
The performance of real space and virtual space: specific stage space and special stage expression form Voiceover: dialogue: monologue, etc. Transform and expand the actual space environment, or exaggerate or reduce the depiction. The description and expression of the psychological space of the characters in the play.
8. The way of lighting change 1) The change of the plot is an opportunity for the change of the space. 2) Opportunities for lighting changes determined by lines. 3) The timing of light changes determined by actions.
4) Opportunities for lighting changes determined by music or sound effects. 5) Opportunities for light changes determined by time. 9. Spatial processing of different styles and genres Classical, romantic, natural, realistic, symbolic, three-dimensional, future, composition, performance, surreal, time-space transformation related to music and sound effects: melody, melody, rhythm.
Author: Feng Dezhong——Graduated from the Lighting Design Department of the Central Academy of Drama in 1982. He has been to Japan several times for training, visits, and academic exchanges. He teaches at the Central Academy of Drama and is currently the director of the teaching and research section of this major. 2. Spatial performance means 1. Research on the characteristics and performance of lighting equipment * Floodlights: heaven and earth row lights, footlights, top row floodlights, etc. *Spotlight: convex lens spotlight, soft spotlight.
*Lensless spotlights: backlights, PAR lights and closed bulbs. Including: parallel, concentrating light, soft light, astigmatism, etc. *Imaging spotlight: modeling light, imaging insert, follow spot light.
*Slide effect lamps: water ripple slides, cloud running slides, PANI slides and other effect lamps, etc. * Computer lamp: a lighting fixture with rotating form of lamp body, mirror movement form, integrating color change, imaging shape, and movement change. *Special projection lighting: effect equipment, color changer, fogger, digital computer projection equipment, etc.
*Operation control system: SCR dimmer and the functions of each part of the dimming console. *Colored light filter: various color filters, color temperature, light reduction, reflective film, soft light film, etc. *Demonstration laser: scan the screen with various low-power laser generators under computer control.
*Auxiliary effect equipment: smoke generator, exhaust and air supply device. Snow generating device, soap bubble generating device, carbon dioxide smoke, liquid nitrogen, fried tobacco, paper fireworks, dry ice, etc. 2. Research on the material characteristics of lighting and illuminated objects. Use the material to express the law of reflection, diffuse reflection, light transmission, semi-transparency, opacity, softness, hardness, absorption and reflection.
Material - textile material - cotton satin velvet linen gauze. Metal materials - gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminum alloy, stainless steel. Natural materials--wood, stone, soil, bricks, plant-based synthetic materials--nylon, plastic, foamed material, PVC sheet.
Smoke material--ethylene glycol smoke oily lingering smoke dry ice low-layer smoke fried smoke liquid nitrogen performance--front projection, reverse projection, plane, three-dimensional, relief, texture, point, line, surface, layer, penetration, halo Silhouette, half silhouette, etc. Performance characteristics--mesh, rope, strip screen, pillar, scrim, strip screen, frame, light box, etc. 3. Research and basic concept of lighting modeling: feeling and performance A. Lighting basics--Research on static figure lighting Four elements of lighting 1) Key light: The direction of the main light is determined according to the theme and viewpoint, and the main light is stronger than others Light, using hard lighting such as spotlights.
2) Auxiliary light: It is an auxiliary and supplement to the main light, and plays a decorative role. Simulate the reflected light of the natural environment with soft lighting. 3) Backlighting: add light on top of the main light.
It can be stronger than the main light, or it can be lower than the main light and stronger than the auxiliary light, and it plays a decorative role. 4) Light ratio: the light and dark ratio of the shape to each side of the light. The light ratio can be adjusted according to the creative needs, so as to obtain the ideal effect.
Lighting angle research: 90/120/180/270 degrees, etc. B. Projection light experiment Projection position Lighting effect Visual impression Theater lighting equipment 1) Directly above the front--stable and natural surface light 2) Front obliquely above--three-dimensional and lively slap 3) Front-front level-- flat expression fades Flat shot chasing light 4 ) Front and bottom--abnormal sense of uneasiness, footlights and low-angle projection 5) Direction above--distorted image, no expression, top row of lights and top projection 6) front and upper side--strong contrast between yin and yang, face side bridge and top side projection Light 7) Horizontal front side - strong and cold side flow light and flat side light 8) Front rear upper side - sharp and decorative top row backlight and top backlight 4. Experience and observe life a Observation of changes in the natural environment - sunlight, moonlight , sunny day, cloudy day, rainy day, snowy day, environmental impact b Observation of life - light and character scene - daylight: front light, backlight, side light, half side and other effect performance c, application - lighting practice for determining the theme content: character Practice lighting the screen. Relevant factors-light and dark, color tone, light, shadow, light quality, media, movement, vocabulary, visual effects-space area change, rhythm, space-time transformation, form of expression, environmental treatment, design, combination, stage lighting-small theater, large theater, protruding stage, three-sided stage, four-sided stage lighting, theater casting light Experiment 5. Theater lighting experiment: including theater lighting equipment, projection position, lighting effect, visual impression TEST-1 Floodlight row lights: uniform lighting of the stage as a whole, and lighting of the painting scene, the effect is scattered and well-proportioned.
TEST-2 Bare feet and ground row: Simulate the natural ground reflection light, and describe the actors at close range, but there are many shadows in the sky. TEST-3 Floodlight row lights and footlight floor row: In the performance area, the canopy is evenly illuminated, with understatement and insufficient three-dimensional effect. TEST-4 Sky Lantern: Evenly render the upper part of the sky and the color change.
TEST-5 Ground row lamp: the light and dark color change of the lower part of the sky: the description of the silhouette effect at sunrise and sunset, etc. TEST-6 Heaven and earth row lights: When the upper and lower parts are of the same color, the background lighting can be uniform. It can express scenes such as day and night.
TEST-7 Floodlight row lights, foot lights, sky and earth row lights: Eliminate clutter, high-key fade effect, and the relationship between the primary and secondary characters is not clear. TEST-8 Floodlight: Projected from above the stage, the projected image is outstanding, and the color light effect is more gorgeous. TEST-9 Floodlight row lights, foot lights, sky and earth rows, and top row lights: the audience's sight is more concentrated, and the lighting for character modeling is insufficient.
TEST-10 stage flow light: it can enhance the three-dimensional sense of characters and scenes, but shadows often appear on the table. TEST-11 Surface lighting: projected from about 450 angles above the auditorium to the stage, simulating the effect of natural light. TEST-12 Slap lighting: projected from both sides of the front of the stage to enhance the three-dimensional effect of the actors.
TEST-13 Floodlight row lights + foot lights + sky and earth rows + surface lights + slaps: pay attention to the color tone relationship when obtaining sufficient brightness. TEST-14 Floodlight row lights, foot lights, sky and earth row, top row, flow, surface light, ear slap: more lighting methods are usually used. More comprehensive direction of light projection, according to the actual needs of the performance, through the means of light adjustment, so as to obtain the ideal three-dimensional space effect.
TEST-15 Chasing light: It is usually set at the back of the auditorium or at the desired position for partial space lighting, such as half or full body of a character. TEST-16 Ground row, top row, surface light, flow, chasing light, etc.: Through dimming processing, the three-dimensional effect can be expressed to obtain a creative environment. TEST-17 Heaven and earth row blue, top row white light, and light blue, flowing white light: The sky and earth row blue light creates the overall tone, the top row blue light covers the stage, and three spotlights emphasize three local figures respectively, and one mobile light Emphasize the spherical background.
TEST-18 Ground row lights are green, blue, top row lights are white and blue, and flow lights are light purple: the sky curtain forms a transition from blue to dark blue from bottom to top, the top row of lights is blue all over the table, and the top row of single lights is white After calendering, it is projected on the characters, and the light purple light flows on both sides to supplement the middle of the stage, forming a soft contrasting color atmosphere with cool tones. TEST-19 Two sets of light purple and light blue spotlight footlights, light blue top row of white lights, and dark blue flow lights: use spotlight footlights to intentionally project the light and shadow of the characters on the sky background, the blue light of the top row of lights covers the stage, and a single top light The lamp emphasizes the central image, coupled with the dark blue light of the flowing lamp, it shows a dreamlike impact effect atmosphere. TEST-20 ground row light is red, top row single light is white, both sides flow lights are orange and yellow, surface light is light orange, emphasis is on strengthening flow light yellow: the ground row lights cause excessive red background, the top row of white light is used for emphasis, and the surface light casts On the stage with soft orange light, strengthen the flowing lights to make the three-dimensional sense of space more prominent.
(TEST 1-20 notes are from Matsushita Electric Works "STAGE& ENTERAINMENT LIGHTING".